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Tuesday, May 5, 2020 | History

4 edition of Urinary concentrating mechanism found in the catalog.

Urinary concentrating mechanism

structure and function

by Rex L. Jamison

  • 214 Want to read
  • 0 Currently reading

Published by Oxford University Press in New York, Oxford .
Written in English

  • Kidneys.,
  • Renal tubular transport.,
  • Kidney concentrating ability.,
  • Kidney medulla.

  • Edition Notes

    Statementby Rex L. Jamison and Wilhelm Kriz.
    ContributionsKriz, Wilhelm.
    LC ClassificationsQP249
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL21162594M
    ISBN 100195028015

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Urinary concentrating mechanism by Rex L. Jamison Download PDF EPUB FB2

Overview. One may divide the conceptual history of the concentrating mechanism into three periods. The first period ( to ) was inaugurated by a study by Kuhn and Ryffel [] that proposed that the production of a concentrated urine results from the countercurrent multiplication of a “single effect.”Kuhn and Ryffel [] constructed a working apparatus that exemplified the principles of Cited by: Disorders of the urinary concentrating mechanism vary widely in their clinical importance.

At one extreme, they may simply represent an inconvenience to the patient who has to arise several times e Cited by: Additional Physical Format: Online version: Urinary concentrating mechanisms.

Basel ; New York: Karger, (OCoLC) Document Type: Book: All Authors. Urinary Concentrating Mechanism: Structure and Function Hardcover – Janu by Rex L. Jamison (Author) › Visit Amazon's Rex L.

Jamison Page. Find all the books, read about the author, and more. See search results for this author. Are you an author. Learn about Author Central Cited by: THE URINARY CONCENTRATING MECHANISM.

Urinary concentration is a function of the juxtamedullary nephrons with long loops of Henle that penetrate deep into the renal medulla.

There are two main steps in this process. First, transport of sodium chloride without water from the ascending limb of Henle's loop renders the medullary interstitium. No concept in renal physiology has been as revolutionary as the loop of Henle as a countercurrent system responsible for urine concentration.

The idea was introduced in by Werner Kuhn, a Swiss physical chemist who had earlier worked on a countercurrent system for the purification of heavy water. A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the : Joseph Feher.

The important findings at the end of this first phase of the test consist of a 5% increase in serum osmolality to ensure maximal physiologic stimulation of vasopressin release, measurement of urine osmolality to assess the effect of dehydration on the urinary concentrating mechanism, and a plasma vasopressin level.

Additional Physical Format: Online version: Jamison, Rex L., Urinary concentrating mechanism. New York: Oxford University Press, (OCoLC) Kidney Concentrating Capacity. Urinary concentration requires a countercurrent multiplication process allowing the medullary interstitium to become progressively hypertonic and the osmotic equilibration of medullary collecting duct fluid with the hypertonic medullary interstitium.

From: Fetal and Neonatal Physiology (Fifth Edition),   This book, written jointly by an American physiologist and a German anatomist, presents a detailed account of the structure and function of the renal medulla, with particular emphasis on the manner in which the kidney elaborates a concentrated urine.

It is a scholarly book Author: George Dunea. Summary. The mechanism of the defect in urinary concentrating capacity in potassium deficiency was investigated by measuring solute-free water reabsorption (\(T_{{\text{H}}_{\text{2}} {\text{O}}}^{\text{C}}\)) in normal and hypokalemic rats undergoing mannitol potassium-deficiency markedly lowered glomerular filtration rate (GFR), \(T_{{\text{H}}_{\text{2}} {\text{O}}}^{\text{C Cited by: We then examine the mechanism of concentration and dilution of urine, the measurement of the ability of the kidney to concentrate urine, and finally the action of some selective diuretics and their potential therapeutic effects.

We begin with a comprehensive presentation Cited by: 6. The role of urea in the urine concentrating mechanism has been well- documented Earlier studies have reported that renal epithelial cells, MDCK and LLC-PK1, responded to hyperosmotic state.

The organ system that performs this function in humans—the urinary system—is the topic of this chapter. The organs of the urinary system are organs of excretion—they remove wastes and water from the body. Specifically, the urinary system “cleans the blood” of metabolic wastes, which are substances produced by the body that it cannot.


The composition of the blood (internal environment) is determined not by what the. The mechanism by which urine is concentrated in the mammalian kidney remains incompletely understood. Urea is the dominant urinary osmole in most mammals and may be concentrated a fold above its plasma level in humans and even more in rodents.

Several facilitated urea transporters have been cloned. The phenotypes of mice with deletion of the transporters expressed in the kidney have Cited by:   7. urinary concentration (countercurrent mechanism) 1.

Chapter 7 Urinary concentration (Counter Current Mechanism) FORMATION OF DILUTE AND CONCENTRATED URINE What are the basic principles of concentrated urine formation.

RU JUL10, DU Depends on ADH which controls water permeability in the last portion of DCT and collecting duct. Upper urinary tract infection refers to infection of the urinary tract above the level of the bladder; that is, the ureters, kidneys, and peri-renal tissues.

This term is used mainly in reference to pyelonephritis. “Upper UTI” also encompasses intrarenal abscess (“renal carbuncle”) and perinephric abscess. This is the mechanism responsible for concentrating solutes in the medullary interstitium.

--High solute concentration enables kidneys to excrete highly concentrated urine, conserve water during periods of. The bladder mechanism consists of the voluntary filling and voiding of the urinary bladder which is controlled by a combined action of the Pelvic Floor muscles (support for the bladder), the Detrusor (muscle surrounding the bladder walls), and the Urethral sphincters (muscles on the Urethra that act as valves for the bladder to be emptied).

Carl William Gottschalk was born on Apin Salem, Virginia, to Lula Helbig and Carl Gottschalk. His father had been born in Germany and emigrated to South Africa, where as a machinist he fabricated and repaired cigarette-making machines. The renal concentrating mechanism, involving the loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct, and vasa recta acting as one functional unit.

thin ascending limb A limb of the loop of Henle composed of a simple squamous epithelium that does not have an important ion transport function; instead, the epithelium has passive permeability.

Mechanisms of urine concentration Principal discussant: ROBERT W. BERLINER Yale University School of TV. edicine, New Haven, Connecticut duced concentrating disorders, and mechanisms of diuretic the urinary specific gravity was one of the easiest measure-ments one could make.

For a long time, however, the subject. 4 Hebert S. Roles of Na-K-Cl and Na-Cl cotransporters and ROMK potassium channels in urinary concentrating mechanism.

Physiol. Renal Physiol. 44 FF Abstract ISI Google Scholar; 5 Hozawa S., Holtzman E. J., Ausiello D. cAMP motifs regulating transcription in the aquaporin-2 gene. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 39 Cited by: The countercurrent* concentrating mechanism. Reptiles and amphibians are able to excrete nitrogen-based waste products via their kidneys, but are unable to concentrate urine.

Concentration is the unique property of mammals and some birds by virtue of an extraordinary concentrating system. Its mechanism is counterintuitive and complex.

A countercurrent mechanism system is a mechanism that expends energy to create a concentration gradient. It is found widely in nature and especially in mammalian organs. For example, it can refer to the process that is underlying the process of urine concentration, that is, the production of hyperosmotic urine by the mammalian kidney.

The ability to concentrate urine is also present in birds. Countercurrent exchange is a mechanism occurring in nature and mimicked in industry and engineering, in which there is a crossover of some property, usually heat or some chemical, between two flowing bodies flowing in opposite directions to each other.

The flowing bodies can be liquids, gases, or even solid powders, or any combination of those. For example, in a distillation column, the vapors. From tubular sublimate nephropathy via urinary concentrating mechanism to glomerular disease—Wilhelm Kriz’s contribution to modern nephrology.

Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology, Jun Sebastian Bachmann. Tweet. A PDF file should load here. If you do not see its contents the file may be temporarily unavailable at the Author: Sebastian Bachmann.

Introduction. The Urinary System is a group of organs in the body concerned with filtering out excess fluid and other substances from the bloodstream. The substances are filtered out from the body in the form of is a liquid produced by the kidneys, collected in the bladder and excreted through the urethra.

9 Gottschalk CW and Mylle M. Micropuncture study of the mammalian urinary concentrating mechanism: evidence for the countercurrent hypothesis.

Am J Physiol –, Abstract ISI Google Scholar; 10 Hargitay B and Kuhn W. Das Multiplikationsprinzip als Grundlage der Harnkonzentrierung in der Niere. Z Elektrochem –, Cited by: 2. ABOUT THIS BOOK. Editors & Contributors; Standard Article.

Renal Actions of Vasopressin. Handbook of Physiology, The Endocrine System, Endocrine Regulation of Water and Electrolyte Balance. Mark A. Knepper 1, Heinz Valtin 2, Jeff M. Sands 3; Published Online: 1 JAN DOI: / Mathematical models of the urine concentrating mechanism consist of large systems of coupled differential equations.

The numerical methods that have usually been used to solve the steady-state formulation of these equations involve implicit Newton-type solvers that are limited by numerical instability attributed to transient flow by: The renal medulla produces concentrated urine through the generation of an osmotic gradient that progressively increases from the cortico-medullary boundary to the inner medullary tip.

In the outer medulla, the osmolality gradient arises principally from vigorous active transport of NaCl, without accompanying water, from the thick ascending limbs of short- and long-looped nephrons.

In the. Book Chapter: Stockand JD. Degenerin/ENaC channels. In: Trudea, M. and Zheng, J. eds. Handbook of Ion Channels. Florence, KY: CRC Press; Editorial. The extracellular fluid has a normal osmolarity of mOsm/L. When the kidneys produce a urine more concentrated than mOsm/L they are excreting more solutes compared to water than exists in the ECF, which acts to dilute the ECF and thus lower its osmolarity.

Conversely, when the kidneys produce a urine less concentrated than mOsm/L they are excreting fewer solutes compared to water than. Leitura crítica do artigo "Micropuncture study of the mammalian urinary concentrating mechanism" (Gottschalk & Mylle, ) 1.

Mecanismo de multiplicação contracorrente Leitura crítica de Gottschalk & Mylle, Prof. Caio Maximino 2. Topics covered include: water channels, the urinary concentrating mechanism, angiotensin, the endothelin system, miRNAs and MicroRNA in osmoregulation, desert-adapted mammals, the giraffe kidney, mosquito Malpighian tubules, and circadian rhythms.

Urinary Tract: Chapter 25 22 Questions | By Marycruzmartinez | Last updated: Mar 7, All questions 5 questions 6 questions 7 questions 8 questions 9 questions 10 questions 11 questions 12 questions 13 questions 14 questions 15 questions 16 questions 17 questions 18 questions 19 questions 20 questions 21 questions 22 questions.

The pale urine is dilute, the yellow urine is more concentrated, and the dark yellow urine is very concentrated. Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance compared to the density of an equal volume of distilled water.

Diseases of Water Metabolism T When any of the components of the urinary concentration mecha-nism is disrupted, hypernatremia may ensue, which is universally Determinants of the renal concentrating mechanism.

Human kidneys have two popula-tions of nephrons, superficial and juxtamedullary. This anatomic arrangement has impor.Functions of the urinary system Excretion –removal of waste material from the blood plasma and the disposal of this waste in the urine.

Elimination –removal of waste from other organ systems. From digestive system –undigested food, water, salt, ions drugs. From respiratory system –CO 2, H+, water, toxins.

From skin –water.The volume of filtrate formed by both kidneys per minute is termed the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The heart pumps about 5 L blood per min under resting conditions. Approximately 20 percent or one liter enters the kidneys to be filtered.

On average, this liter results in the production of about mL/min filtrate produced in men (range.